Type 3 Conditional

Yapı

'Type 3 conditional' cümlelerde, 'if' cümlesinde 'past perfect' kipi, ve temel cümlede 'perfect conditional' veya 'perfect continuous conditional' kullanılır.

If cümlesi (şart) Temel cümle (sonuç)
If + past perfect perfect conditional veya perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Tüm şartlı cümlelerde olduğu gibi, cümlelerin sırası sabit değildir. Cümlelerin yeri değiştirildiğinde zamirleri yeniden düzenleyerek ve noktalama işaretlerini uyarlayarak aynı anlam elde edilebilir.

Örnekler
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

İşlev

'Type 3 conditional' geçmişteki imkansız bir şartı ve bu şartın olası sonucunu belirtir. Bu cümleler tamamen varsayımsalı ve gerçek dışıdır, çünkü bu şartın veya sonucunun varolması için artık çok geçtir. 'Type 3 conditional' cümlelerde her zaman bir pişmanlık iması bulunur. Gerçek, cümlenin ifade ettiğinin tersidir. 'Type 3 conditional' cümlelerde, zaman geçmiş zaman ve durum varsayımsaldır.

Örnekler
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

'Type 3 conditional' cümlelerde kesinlik derecesi, izin, veya sonuç ile ilgili bir öneri belirtmek için temel cümlede "would" yerine kip belirteçleri kullanılabilir.

Örnekler
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Kısaltmalar

Hem would hem de had, "'d" şeklinde kısaltılabilir, 'type 3 conditional' cümlelerde kendinizden emin değilseniz bu durum kafa karıştırıcı olabilir. 2 kuralı hatırlayın:
1. would hiçbir zaman if cümlesinde yer almaz bu yüzden "'d" if cümlesinde yer alıyorsa, had'in kısaltması olarak kullanılmaktadır.
2. had hiçbir zaman have'den önce yer almaz bu yüzden "'d" have'den hemen önce bir zamir üzerinde ise would kısaltması olarak kullanılmaktadır.

Örnekler
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

'Perfect CONDITIONAL' kipi

Herhangi bir fiilin 'perfect conditional' hali üç unsurdan oluşur:
would + have + geçmiş zaman ortacı
Have sonrasında gelen geçmiş zaman ortacı diğer kalıplarda da kullanılır. "Perfect infinitive" olarak adlandırılır.

Özne + would + have + geçmiş zaman ortacı
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: perfect CONDITIONAL
Olumlu Olumsuz Soru Cümlesi Olumsuz Soru Cümlesi
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?