Present Perfect CONTINUOUS

'Present Perfect CONTINUOUS' kipini oluşturma

'Present perfect continuous' kipi iki unsurdan oluşur: 'to be' fiilinin 'present perfect' hali (have/has been), ve temel fiilin durum ortacı (kök+ing)

Özne has/have been kök+ing
She has been swimming

Olumlu: She has been / She's been running.
Olumsuz: She hasn't been running.
Soru Cümlesi : Has she been running?
Olumsuz Soru Cümlesi: Hasn't she been running?

Örnek: present perfect CONTINUOUS, TO LIVE
Olumlu Olumsuz Soru Soran
I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

'Present perfect CONTINUOUS'un işlevleri

'Present perfect continuous 'şu andan önce' ve 'şu an' arasında belirtilmemiş bir zamana işaret eder. Konuşmacı o zaman aralığında başlayan ve muhtemelen tamamlanmayan bir şeyi düşünmektedir. Sürecin yanı sıra sonuç ile ilgilenmektedir, ve bu süreç hala devam etmekte olabilir, veya yakın zamanda bitmiş olabilir.

Geçmişte başlayan ve şimdiki zamanda devam eden eylemler

She has been waiting for you all day (= ve şu anda hala bekliyor).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= ve henüz bitirmedim).
They have been travelling since last October (= ve henüz eve varmadılar).

Yakın zamanda biten ama sonuç ile ilgilendiğimiz eylemler

She has been cooking since last night (= ve masadaki yemek harika gözüküyor).
It's been raining (= ve sokaklar hala ıslak).
Someone's been eating my chips (= yarısı gitmiş).

Sürekli olmayan fiiller

Sürekli yapıda her zaman kullanılmayan fiiler ile 'simple present perfect' kipini kullanın. Örneğin: I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.